26 septiembre 2013

Fundación Sol: El trabajo debe ser el centro estratégico del desarrollo

Analizamos junto a los profesionales de la Fundación las nuevas cifras de empleo entregadas hace algunos días por el INE. Para el investigador Gonzalo Durán los puestos de trabajo creados por el gobierno son precarios y no ofrecen protección a los trabajadores, especialmente a las mujeres.

Maximiliano Sepúlveda, Vida Sindical

Hace algunos días, el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, INE, entregó las cifras de empleo correspondientes al último trimestre móvil mayo-julio, donde se anunció que la tasa de cesantía en el país alcanza un 5,7 por ciento. Esto es un 0,8% menos que en igual periodo del año pasado.

Asimismo el Ministro del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Juan Carlos Jobet, destacó que durante este gobierno se han creado 800.000 empleos, 57% de los cuales han sido para mujeres.

Pese al optimismo en las cifras, al desmenuzarlas se advierten matices que ensombrecen el panorama. Para el investigador de la Fundación Sol, Gonzalo Durán, la última entrega del gobierno indica que “hay 650 mil personas que son consideradas como sub empleadas. Trabajan muy pocas horas y están disponibles para trabajar más, por lo tanto son equivalentes a un desocupado porque puede ser que hayan trabajado una vez en la semana por supervivencia y el resto del tiempo buscaron empleo. No hablamos de personas que laboran tiempo parcial porque quieren compatibilizarse con la familia o con los estudios, sino porque no encontraron otro trabajo y están deseosos de hacerlo. Eso para la OIT, Organización Internacional del Trabajo, es precariedad laboral y no alcanza la condición de trabajo estable y real”.


El informe también señala que existen más de un millón de personas en condición de asalariadas. Es decir que pese a ser subordinados, esto es cumplir un horario y obedecer instrucciones, no tienen contrato de trabajo. Además, el 64% de los puestos creados corresponden a subcontratación. En el caso de las mujeres, seis de cada ocho se encuentran en esta condición.

Al ser consultados sobre cuáles son los factores que impiden que en Chile se genere empleo de calidad, Gonzalo Durán apunta a la cultura empresarial del país. “Los dueños del capital tienen un circuito de acumulación, donde pueden apropiarse del salario de los trabajadores sin que ellos estén en condiciones de tomar una posición de fuerza o resistencia efectiva. Esto es porque desde hace 34 años, con la implantación del plan laboral, los trabajadores perdieron el poder de resistirse a esa apropiación, y eso tiene que ver entre otros factores con el reemplazo del trabajador en huelga”.

El más patente, a juicio del economista de la Universidad Católica, es el de la empresa Sodimac, cuyo sindicato de bodegas, SINTRABOS, completa casi un mes y medio en huelga, “Sodimac factura por sobre el billón de pesos y tiene utilidades por 133 mil millones. El contrato colectivo de los trabajadores de bodega, le cuesta a la empresa menos del 1% de esa ganancia y pese a esto no estuvieron dispuestos a mejorar las condiciones de sus funcionarios, siendo que en los últimos 2 años las ventas han aumentado en un 30%. Están apuntando a que los trabajadores se desgasten y descuelguen. El objetivo es destruir al sindicato utilizando la estrategia de prolongar el proceso”.

Sobre la hipótesis de que un trabajador bien remunerado y en buenas condiciones produce más, presenta menos licencias médicas y además adquiere una mayor capacidad de endeudamiento, factores que podrían ser beneficiosos para la empresa, Gonzalo Durán asegura que la mirada es cortoplacista: “Los efectos llamados “de segunda vuelta” podrían contribuir a una mayor rentabilidad, pero la mayoría de las empresas piensan más en la tasa de acumulación de ganancia inmediata. A la hora de hacer el balance al empleador le conviene tener a los trabajadores sin poder y ganando menos de 220 mil pesos”.

A esto se suma, a juicio de los profesionales de la Fundación, una cultura organizacional que busca entregar retribuciones “morales” a los trabajadores, a fin de paliar los posibles focos de conflicto que acarrean las bajas remuneraciones y malas condiciones de trabajo. “Se da el fenómeno de “dulcificar” la relación laboral. Con esquemas que no tienen que ver con aumentos sino con el llamado “salario emocional” que es una técnica de control sutil donde el trabajador es reconocido, se le denomina un “colaborador”, se le reconoce como el empleado del mes y se gana una chapita, por ejemplo. Con eso el trabajador se siente parte de una organización y se neutraliza el posible nivel de conflictividad al que se llegaría producto de esta precariedad material. Hemos visitado lugares donde hay trabajadores que están ganando menos de 220 mil pesos, y uno esperaría que estuvieran poco menos quemando la empresa pero eso no pasa, principalmente por este fenómeno. Hay técnicas científicas que se enseñan cada vez más en las escuelas de economía sobre cómo hacer sentir al trabajador como un par equivalente”, señalan los investigadores.

Sobre el futuro del escenario laboral, Gonzalo Durán advierte que si los trabajadores no adquieren una posición de fuerza a través de la organización y la unidad, será difícil que se produzcan los cambios que se requieren con urgencia, independiente del sector político que llegue al poder: “Acá hay una despolitización tremenda con respecto al sujeto de trabajo. Y eso tiene mucho que ver con lo que ocurrió en dictadura donde existió un plan para despolitizar a los trabajadores y desmovilizarlos. A nuestro entender las transformaciones que requiere el mundo del trabajo no van a ser posibles de lograr si es que los propios trabajadores no están en primera línea luchando para instalar estos temas. Uno esperaría ver que en algún minuto esto tomara el nivel de lo que ocurrió con los estudiantes el año 2011. Es difícil que un gobierno de derecha o centro izquierda implemente estos cambios sin los trabajadores ejerciendo presión”, cierra el miembro del equipo de Fundación Sol.

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