25 noviembre 2013

Jóvenes se demoran hasta cuatro años más en obtener título de carrera profesional

Geología debería durar 12 semestres, pero los alumnos obtienen su título a los 10 años de haber ingresado a la universidad.


La Tercera
Tras pensar varias carreras, Sofía Hurtado (26) decidió, en 2006, estudiar Veterinaría. El primer año tuvo problemas con química, pero después su paso “fue tranquilo”, dice. Sin embargo, tras una práctica profesional, se quedó trabajando un par de horas en una consulta, por lo cual recién terminó su carrera de cinco años.

El largo paso de Hurtado por Veterinaria no es excepcional pues, según los últimos datos del portal Mi Futuro.cl, del Ministerio de Educación, esa carrera está entre los diez programas más largos y sus alumnos se demoran, en promedio, ocho años en titularse.

Sin embargo, Geología es el caso más extremo. En promedio, el programa debería durar 12 semestres, pero los estudiantes obtuvieron su título en 20,3 semestres, es decir en más de 10 años. Esto significa que se demoraron casi cuatro años más de lo estipulado en obtener la certificación.


La situación es similar en Ingeniería Civil Electrónica y en Derecho. En este plan, en vez de titularse al décimo semestre, el alumno lo hace casi al noveno año de haber ingresado a la universidad.

“La duración de las carreras ha sido una preocupación constante del Ministerio de Educación”, señala el subsecretario de la cartera, Fernando Rojas. Agrega que, en promedio, la extensión de los planes “aumenta los costos de la educación superior para las familias y los jóvenes del orden del 30%”.

El rector de la U. de Santiago, Juan Manuel Zolezzi, sostiene que uno de los motivos para la larga duración de los planes es que “en general, los estudiantes de cuarto medio se enfrentan a una situación de dificultad no resuelta al ingresar a la universidad y son muy pocos los que no necesitan algún tipo de reforzamiento. Eso podría significar que el nivel baja o fracasa en carreras que se denominan duras”.

El también vicepresidente del Consejo de Rectores sostiene que “hay veces en que los estudiantes no pueden terminar de estudiar porque van a trabajar (...) y una vez en el mercado laboral, los niveles de renta hacen que sea difícil volver a sacar su título”.

Una consecuencia de que la duración real de las carreras sea tan larga tiene relación con los montos asignados a los beneficios estudiantiles. “Son muchos los recursos que el Estado destina en becas y créditos, y si las carreras duraran un tiempo menor, se podrían invertir en otras áreas prioritarias”, indica Rojas. Además, desde el 2000, el Mineduc ha destinado cerca de 70 mil millones “en iniciativas que buscan rediseño curricular y reducción de las carreras, pero los resultados no han sido muy alentadores”, señala la autoridad.

Iniciativas

A través de programas y convenios de desempeño, el ministerio ha implementado políticas para que la duración de las carreras se acorte. Sin embargo, “a las instituciones les cuesta enfocarse en la disminución formal de las carreras por cuanto implica a veces revisar las mallas de estudios y la duplicidad de contenidos”.

El rector Zolezzi sostiene, sin embargo, que el trabajo de acortar las carreras es complejo, pues “se tiene que definir un marco de cualificaciones y decir qué competencias va a tener cada profesional y en eso tienen que participar las universidades y los potenciales empleadores.
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